RED ROCK CANYON / DOVE SPRINGS

Survey number:      Owner:      Date of discovery:

December 13, 1893: “THE NEW BONANZA COUNTRY–Rich Finds in and About theGoler District–A Mining Region Neglected by Los Angeles Capitalists. Men Who Are Doing Well Without Any Capital—Tim Result* of a Recent Trip Over That Section.  Special correspondence to the Herald. Goler Camp, Dec, 12.—Recent developments in the Goler mining district iv Kern county induced your correspondent to make a trip thither, and after a seven days’ thorough investigation of said district I consider it a matter of sufficient interest to your many readers to warrant a hasty account of my trip.

Took passage over the Southern Pacific in one of their elegant coaches, from Los Angeles to Mojave, is one full of interest to any one who is interested in the geological formation of the country.
Arriving there we secured a team from J. W. Rice and drove to the first camp, at Red Rock canyon, 28 miles distant. Here we found something like 20 tents in various localities on both side of the main gulch, and all seemingly very active.

The claims of Messrs. Bell, Morse & Co., from Ban Bernardino, are by far the richest in this canyon. They have made an average of $8 per day to the man for the last seven weeks. The process is with dry washer entirely, and hence the gold is all coarse, no care being taken to save the fine; in fact, the washers used will not save fine gold.” –The Herald

December 31, 1893: “ABOUT HOLES IN THE GROUND–The Red Rock Camp Still Panning Out. Bakersfield Democrat: The following letter was received by Messrs. Dudley & Morrah of this city on last Saturday morning from J. W. Jobling and J. Davis, who are working in the new gold district near Mojave. As this letter is from two men who are learning what there is there from actual experience and daily observation, and who have no purpose to serve in either exaggerating or suppressing facts, it will be of interest to many; especially to those who are contemplating “trying their lack” at gold hunting. The letter reads as follows:

Red Rock Canon, Kern Co., Cal, Dec. 22. 1893. F Dean Boyh: We wrote you some days ago, but have received no answer; suppose you had nothing of importance to say to us—likewise ourselves. We have been at work on a shaft for the past 10 days, which of course was dead work. We, as well as everyone else in camp, thought we would strike a rich deposit of gold when we reached bedrock, bat we seem to be “oat of lock,” as we found only a few fine colors of gold. We tried in other places on the same claim and got little better showing. But there it too much gravel and rock to move, and the gravel is so moist it will not work in a dry washer. There seems to be first one difficulty and then another. The truth of the business is, one cannot do much without water, unless the dirt is dry and very rich. We are would be under the circumstances, but intend to stay until oar grub runs out, unless we can sell out to some sucker who wants to try his luck and live on sagebrush and land on that beautiful (?) Mojave Desert. There it one company who are taking considerable gold in the gulch next to where we sunk our shaft, and run a shaft on the “Santa Maria,” but they have shallow bedrock all the way, and very little trouble to work their claims. There are only a few doing anything, aside from them. We have not given up yet, and will go and work the claim we left, and wherewe know there it a little gold, if we can’t do better. Very truly yours, Jobling A.  Davis.” –The Herald

January 1, 1894: “SOME MINES OF THE DESERT –Big Deposits Which Are Difficult to Work—Some Few Lucky Fellows Who Are Making Money –Probably a Continuation of the Mine Road –Trip to the Diggings and Graphic Description of an Interesting Region.—San Francisco Chronicle:  For several months stray reports have been received at San Bernardino, Los Angeles, Bakersfield and other points of the discovery of rich placer mines in the northern  portion of the Mojave Desert, the locality of the mines being indiscriminately ascribed to Kern, Los Angeles and San Bernardino counties, whose boundaries meet in that wilderness.  It is now known, however, that the mines in question are nearly, if not quite, all within the limits of Kern County.  Recently these reports have become more numerous and more glittering, and some most extravagant statements have obtained currency with regard to them.  Something very like an old-time rash commenced in consequence, which was amplified because of the large number of idle men who thought they saw in the mines a means of livelihood if not fortune.

So contradictory have been many of the rumors, and so difficult has it been to sift the residuum of fact from the maws of rumor that a representative of the Chronicle decided to investigate the matter personally and learn the truth in the case.  Being an old miner and experienced in such matters, it was certain that he could hardly be imposed upon, and that what he reported as the result of his investigation might be accepted as undisputed fact.

Preparations were made accordingly, and about two weeks ago he set out upon what under the most favorable circumstances is a most arduous journey, with little comfort from commencement to finish.

The nearest point to the mines is the station of Mojave, which is the junction at the Southern Pacific and the Atlantic Pacific railroads, and is situated in the northern part of the desert from which it derives its name.  Arrangements were made to have a light wagon and a mule team in readiness to meet the correspondent at that point. Which was reached about 9 o’clock in the morning on the train leaving San Francisco at 5 o’clock the previous evening.  A more unromantic and uninviting place than this same Mojave, by the way, it would be difficult to find.  Its chief characteristics are railroad tracks, hoboes, empty tin cans and wind.  It is a favorite saying, and a quite truthful one, too, that the wind always blows at Mojave.  Here the sides of tramp travel over the two transcontinental lines meet, and being a division headquarters many railroad men are obliged to live here.  Obliged is the right word.  No one was ever known to deliberately choose this as a place of residence, while the man who does not leave at the first opportunity is a rare avis indeed.  Situated as it is in the midst of a desert, all the food of the inhabitants is brought from a distance, and consisting as it therefore does almost entirely of “canned truck,” it follows that in the course of years during which Mojave has had its windy existence, a vast accumulation of empty cans has resulted, and these are scattered over acres of land.  In every direction, where they lie, greatly to the wonderment of the traveler who is not posted with regard to the peculiarities of this remarkable place.

But to resume the journey to the mines.  Almost due north of Mojave may be seen  on a clear day two notable mountain pinnacles, which, the inquirer will be  told, are and have long been known as  the Goler peaks.  Running in a northeasterly direction toward the mountains from Mojave is a wagon road build years ago for the accommodation of teams hauling freight to and from the borax works in San Bernardino County, far to the eastward.  This road skirts the foothills, and is for the most part as hard and smooth as a floor, with occasional short stretches of sand, which served to keep one in mind  of the fact that this is sure enough desert.  At this time of year the weather is cool and bracing, and desert travel has little discomfort and none of the danger that characterizes it during the summer months.

Our mules take us along at a good gait, and not many hours are required to cover the 20 miles from Mojave to the spot where the road forks from Mojave to the spot where the road forks one branch –which is the stage road to Keeler, in Inyo County –bearing away in a still more northerly direction.  Red Rock canyon is the nearest of the new mining districts in Mojave, and as this is our destination we take the left Rand Road the point of divergence being a railroad tie set upright in the ground.  The Keeler road runs into Red Rock Canyon soon after leaving the forks, and it is here that some really good mines are now being worked.   This canyon is found to be a gigantic rift through the chain of mountains which bounds the desert on the north, and in no sense is a canyon as that word is generally understood.  It would be called a mountain valley only it cuts right across a range instead of splitting one, or being subtended by two ranges on its sides instead of ends.  But here it is, the ends of the  great mountains respectfully withdraws so as to make a wide and nearly  level pass straight through, several miles in width and  with any amount of elbow room.

Once within the so-called “canyon” there may be seen some of the most splendid natural architectural effects upon earth.  There is nothing its equal in symmetry, grace and beauty anywhere else to be seen on the desert.  It is beyond description, but the day is coming when it will be widely known of men.  And all of these wonderful scenic effects have been produced by the action of time on layers of different tinted sandstone, capped with other layers of volcanic mud.

Two miles through the mountain and a gulch opens to the right.  Up this a mile and a half and the dry placers are found.  So far 300 locations have been made, generally 1500 feet by 500. Pillars of stones serving as monuments can be seen in every direction.  At present there are 55 men in the  camp, which is called Red Rock, and  the following claims are being worked, named in their order as one goes up  what is called the northeast fork of Red Rock Canyon:  Davis & Joblin, operating their claim, bedrock deep and not yet reached: Forney, the same; Polley Heaps, taking out pay but making no report thereof; Farrell, prospecting; Shaw, Bell, Standard, Morse and Randy, working six men  altogether; Jackson & Campbell,  said to be taking out  good pay;  Black & Sullivan, working for themselves and doing well, then one and one-half miles further up Hulman &  Nugent are taking   out  some gold.

There are claims in this district worthy of note, and they differ in every characteristic save one.  They agree in the fact that although called gravel mines, all of the rock is angular, and the sand, even to the finest, is none of it rounded or water worn.  Yet each claim is paying, and paying handsomely.

The Black & Sullivan claim is located upon the mountain side, which is everywhere covered with a reddish formation which is called gravel, and all of it, so far as prospected, carries gold.  At present the two partners are working well up the mountain side, where the wash is rarely over 2 feet thick, but where by dry washing each shovel full of the dirt averages about 5 cents in gold.  These two men, who are experienced miners, believe they have a handsome competence before them.

When the rainy season comes, these side-hill deposits cannot, of course, be worked by dry washing, and anticipating that time they have sunk a shaft nearer the main gulch than their present surface workings.  Three feet from the surface they struck “gravel” 3 feet thick.  Then came 4 feet of “iron slims,” below which are 2 feet of pay dirt, which prospects better than the upper layer.  If water could be used upon the deposits covering these mountain sides and immense amount of gold could be extracted, but as it is, by the expensive method of dry washing only the bed and a little way up the sides of the gulches can be washed, and the great mass of  gold-bearing substance will  have to be left untouched.

Black and Sullivan discovered the gold  in this  district in May last and have  traversed the mountains from Maryland peak, near Tehachapi, to beyond Goler  camp in a general course of north 18 degrees east, and have  found fine gold is many places along a belt which may, perhaps, average three  miles in width.  Their theory of these deposits is that they have been gathered by some sort of water action like the wearing of the waves of the sea upon the auriferous mountain sides.  They do not accept the theory of gold-bearing gravel having been brought down from Inyo County before the eruptions of the tertiary times.

In October Black and Sullivan prospected this region again and then discovered gold in quantities and coarse enough to warrant working their claims by dry washing.

Shaw, Bell & Co.’s claim was located on October 16, 1893, in what now is called Bonanza Gulch, a narrow and irregular branch opening into the main gulch something like a mile below the side hill deposits just mentioned.  Here only the main bed of the gulch is being worked to an average width of about six feet.  The deposit rarely exceeds 15 inches in depth, yet the output average an ounce of gold to the man each day.  The best day’s result was 10 1/2 ounces, while the largest nugget was 3 ¼ ounces.  This product is the result from one dry washer.

The ground being so rich no attention is paid to the sides of the gulch.  Only the cream from the center is taken, and the results are indeed satisfactory to the owners.  The time will before long come when part at least of this ground will be gone over.  At the foot of the Bonanza Gulch where its wash debouches into the main channel, a shaft 51 feet deep has been sunk, which shows seven different layers of gravel, and at the lowest of all said to prospect from 30 to 63 cents to the pan.  There were no boulders to contend with, and no water was encountered, but the owners are waiting until the rainy season to continue sinking and prospecting in the pay channel.

Pretty much all of the area  where prospecting has shown gold to exist, or where its presence is even suspected has been staked off, and diligent search, failed to show us, even if we had desired an opportunity for making a location with any reasonable prospect of success.  So, bidding farewell to Red Rock Canyon, after a couple days of inspection, we struck out for Goler, some 18 or 20 miles distant.” –L. A. Herald

January 31, 1894: “Returning from Goler Mr. Campbell stopped at Red Rock, where be found everything in a flourishing condition and the whole camp as prosperous and as happy bb can be. The report of the richness of the Red Rock diggings has not been exaggerated, says Mr. Campbell, and being a very conservative gentleman and of great experience in placer mining, his opinion ought to carry weight. – He was very much astonished to see the amount of gold taken out before his eyes, and running sometimes as high ag #10, and even up to $20 and over, per sack of 75 to 80 pounds of dirt. This came from Bonanza Gulch —a very appropriate name, by the way—formerly owned by Bell & Co., and now controlled and owned by Hay and Canfield, who are compelled to have this attractive gulch patrolled and guarded by special watchmen to prevent pilfering. The bedrock lying close under a shallow covering of dirt, it is easy to scrape the whole of it into sacks and carry it off. It is practically all pay dirt. These facts speak for themselves. Water has not as yet been developed, but it can be had in sufficient quantities close by in the main Red Rock gulch by pumping it up into tanks, and then it car/be used in sluicing. The camp is naturally very lively, and everybody is displaying nuggets. Once in a while some of the “boys” go to Mojave station, distant 28 miles, and have a nice time. Not long ago some of them created a great sensation at Mojave by throwing handfuls of nuggets into the street to see the people scramble for the treasure. Mr. Campbell says that all the claims worth having have long ago been taken up, and that the more distant places of the desert are dangerous to venture into under ordinary circumstances. This ought to be a warning to tenderfoot prospectors” –Los Angeles Herald

February 05, 1894: “IT IS A BONANZA GOLD CAMP. Reliable Reports From Goler, Red Rock and Summit. Miners Who Are Taking Out Treasure in Quantities. –The Herald has always been conservative in its statements about mining camps, and in its news about the Goler district, northeast of Mojave, has aimed to be simply accurate. Most of the information about the region named has been given the public exclusively by this journal. To that information it is now able to add as follows more definite facts from information obtained from people just from Red rock, Goler and Summit who were seen by Mr. Mulholland of Inyo.

REDROCK.–From an entirely reliable source the following facts in relation to the mining camp at Redrock, Goler and Summit are given: A party of three prospectors at the Redrock camps sold their claims recently for $6000. Within a very few days after the purchase was made the buyers were offered $6000 for one-third interest in the claims. This offer was refused. The ground has been carefully prospected and the owners’ are satisfied that even with the present method of working they can take out not less than $200,000. That the present method of working is imperfect and very wasteful is shown by the following fact: Three men worked one day on tailings from dirt that had been put through the dry washer once; on this one day the men took three ounces of fine gold from the tailings. The dirt is rich in coarse gold, and this leads to hurry and waste in working.

The field is found to be extensive as it is better prospected, and no doubt other miners will report as good results as any yet heard from. Martin Standard is another miner that is doing well at Redrock. Recently he sold to W. O. Wilson, a merchant at Mojave, 24 ounces of gold he had taken out in a short time. The party’s working with or near Standard have made a good deal of money. The vein of pay dirt where this party worked is from four to five feet thick, all carrying gold.

When water can be get within reach the whole of the dirt already worked by dry washing will be worked over again, and will yield a large amount of gold, as much of the metal in a fine state now runs through the machines.” –The Herald

June 24, 1894: “BIG BOOM AT RED ROCK. –Discoveries of Large Nuggets Causes a Rush to the Fields. Mojave. June 23. — Mining at Red Rock about thirty miles from here has received a new boom through the find of several valuable nuggets. One nugget taken from the claim of Billy Nevena to-day weighed twenty-two ounces. In addition to the rich gold discoveries, water has been found in unlimited quantity at the Bonanza mine and tho promise of a great boom is in sight. Already great quantities of gold have been brought here from the placer diggings in that vicinity, and with the aid of the Bonanza water plant, now being constructed, the gold fields are bound to take the lead. About $170 was obtained yesterday by a man through the dry washer process, and with the aid of water nearly double that amount could have been secured. Many people are flocking to these fields and the town is booming in consequence.” –The Morning Call

June 27, 1894: “RED ROCK GOLD FIELDS:  “Much Metal Being Shipped—The Camp
Mojave, June 26. —The returns from the placer gold fields at Red Rock during the last few days have been most promising. Over $3000 worth of gold has been brought here for shipment since Sunday last and people are arriving daily bringing with them evidence of rich deposits.  A daily stage line is in operation between here and that camp and yesterday the first message was transmitted over the telephone line which gives Mojave direct communication with Kane Springs and Red Rock. At the Bonanza mine, what promises to he an unlimited supply of water has been found and bids fair to revolutionize mining in that vicinity, as the scarcity of water heretofore has been a great drawback, it having been necessary to haul water for many miles.” – The Herald

June 27, 1894: “LARGE QUANTITIES OF GOLD are being brought from the placer fields at Red Rock to Mojave for shipment. A daily stage and a telephone line from Mojave to Red Rock are now in operation.” –The Herald

June 25, 1896: “RICH GOLD FIELDS NEAR MOJAVE. ONE NUOGET FOUND WEIGHING THIRTY-FOUR OUNCES. Big Rush for the New El Dorado- Water Worth More Than Flour. MO.TAVF, June 24. —Intense excitement prevails here over the finding of a large nugget by Thomas Jaggers in the Red Rock mining country. It is the largest that has yet been picked up in the treasure lands of the desert, and all of Mojave is talking about it .The nugget was found yesterday by Jaggers at Red Rock, on the Ivy M. placer claim, formerly owned by the Bonanza Company. Some half-dozen nuggets have been found on this claim, running from $25 to $400 in value, but this one is the largest of the lot. It weighs thirty-four ounces and is worth $400. Jaggers bonded the claim a few days ago for $25, and now holds the deed to the property. He says there are more nuggets there, and he has gone to Los Angeles to celebrate his extraordinary find. He had been working over the nugget for several days, and noticed it only when his boot heel scratched it.” – The Record Union

July 11, 1897: “The group of mines belonging to the Pacific Consolidated  Mining Company is six in number.  They are the Seven Sisters, The J. C. C.; the Commercial Wedge, Gold Queen, Lady Grace, and Little George.  They are all located on the east slope of the Argus Range of Mountains, about twenty four miles from Mojave and twenty-two miles from Randsburg and lie in what is known as the Red Rock District.  The properties cover an area of about 120 acres and all within the gold belt of Kern County.  A visit to these mines shows that there has not been much work done on them as yet.  The ore is base ore but is no telling how much there is of it.  In fact, there is one mountain there that seems to be nothing but a mountain of quartz.  Assays made of the ore taken from different places on the ledge showed values from $4to $14 a ton, but as no development work has been done to any extent, it should be remembered that the assays were from surface rock, which could hardly be expected to make a good showing. Some short time ago a mill test was made of some ore from the Lady Grace mine, one of the group of the Pacific Consolidated.  Five sacks were taken at a depth of four feet, and sent to the firm of Wade & Wade, assayers to Los Angeles.  The rock showed about $5 per ton.  Seven and one half pounds of selected rock were milled at Kane Springs, and it is stated that they yielded nearly $14 , or at the rate of nearly $2 to the pound of ore. Of course such an assay shows that there is a large quantity of high-grade ore scattered all through the Argus Range, but that fact is less important than the other, which shows an immense body of base ore which, with the necessary appliances could be worked at a handsome profit.”  – Los Angeles Daily Times (  Researchers Note:  But not at a profit if looking for these mines in the Argus Range as the Argus Range is nowhere near Red  Rock District)

April 29, 1897–DOVE SPRINGS– Considerable mining is going on at Dove springs, ten miles west of Red Rock canyon, and this section bids fair to become an important point in the near future. There are many prospectors in the adjacent hills, and all indications point to the establishment of a permanent camp. The Lee brothers and J. M. Hicks, owners of the Mogul, have sunk a shaft to the depth of 115 feet and the vein, which was but ten inches near the surface, has increased to fifteen feet and prospects entirely across, assaying from $10 to $35 a ton. These parties own two other promising claims, the Teller and Bryan, both of which are being developed.

The Santa Rosa mine has been purchased by J. Wilson and E. Neumann, and the main shaft is now at a depth of seventy-five feet. Five men are at work on this mine and a two-foot body of ore- assays well although it is somewhat base.  A carload of ore will be shipped this week to the Selby smelter at San Francisco, for a thorough test.  The Santa Rosa was formerly owned by Henry Scott and Cayutana Duarte.
The William J. Bryan mine, owned by James Keeney and the three Johnson brothers of Alhambra, has a shaft 115 feet and the ore assays from $200 to $.100 a ton. The owners purchased the mine in August from T. Jaggers for $10,000.  This Is regarded as the best property so  far developed in the Dove Springs district. Jaggers is the fortunate individual who discovered the $600 nugget i Rock canyon during the great excitement there two years ago.

H. J. Stevens and Win. Post have a promising claim in the same vicinity, a two-foot body of ore assaying $.?5 Many other good prospects are reported from old Gold Hill and Pinyon Mountain.

RED ROCK CANYON–Red Rock canyon was pretty thoroughly prospected during the excitement of two years ago, and the accumulation of ages taken out, but there are yet many good prospects and the hillsides and gulches are being quite extensively worked by dry washers. At the stage station, near the mouth of the canyon, your correspondent was shown a fifty-six dollar piece,” which was washed out of a prospect a mile north, and considerable coarse gold, some of the pieces being worth $6 and $8. Most of the mining is now carried on at a considerable depth, and where the water level has been reached pumping plants will be put in. At the head of the canyon, several locations have been made on quartz lodes, but they appear to be mere “stringers” and the ore is said to be very refractory.” –Los Angeles Herald

July 17, 1897: LUGO EXAMINED AT HANFORD –The Notorious Horse Thief Has Served a Term Before—Hanford, Cal. July 16. –The preliminary examination of Santos Lugo, the notorious horse thief who was captured at Tehachapi and brought here on the first of this month after having eluded the officers of this county for over two years by traveling all over the state, was held to answer before the Superior Court on a charge of grand larceny, with bail fixed at $1,000, in default of which he is now in jail.

During the trial quite an interesting fact was revealed, which may possibly tent to lengthen Lugo’s sentence.  On January 6, 1877, Lugo, then but 27 years of age, held up a stage in Red Rock Canyon, Kern County, and compelled the driver, William Butterfield, at the point of a Winchester, to deliver Wells Fargo & Co.’s box and the United States mail and then made his escape to the mountains.  He was subsequently captured, and on September 19, 1877, he was sentenced to fifteen years’ imprisonment at San Quentin under the name of Chico Lugo.  He only served ten years, however, the other five being placed to his credit on account of good behavior.  The evidence produced against him to-day was very strong, and he did not rebut any at the prosecution’s testimony.” –San Francisco Call

July 21, 1897: “Besides the group of mines belonging to the Pacific Consolidated Company there are a number of others in close proximity.  One of the first you come to after leaving Red Rock Canyon is the Missing Link, which belongs to Wright & Ramey of Kane Springs.  Then there is the Two Brothers, one half interest in which belongs to Charlie Koehn and the other half to the Kern County Bank of Bakersfield.  Some ore from this mine is said to have assayed as high as $10 to the ton.” –Los Angeles Daily Times

September 5, 1897:  “MINING RESOURCES–Garlock is surrounded by a continuous chain of mining camps extending from Red Rock and Goler district on the west to Slate Range and Panamint district northeast. The limits of this article present giving the array of facts and figures gathered by the writer on a trip just made through some of those districts, so the following outline must suffice: In the celebrated Red Rock district placer mining was conducted very extensively and profitably for many years, the nuggets ranging from $r,O to $700 in value. Although quartz mining has largely superseded, placer mining, there are still from 40 to 50 men engaged in the latter pursuit, by dry washer process. Parties are also sinking a shaft in the main Red Rock wash with the object of getting to bedrock so as to reach the main body of placer and thereby open up a big field for placer mining. There are many good quartz mines too numerous to mention in detail, and among them the Seven Sisters, in which Dr. C. T. Pepper, president of the Los Angeles mining exchange, is interested. Five hundred feet of tunneling is to be done to catch the seven parallel ledges at a depth of 250 feet. Fifty feet has already been done. Charles A. Koehn of Kane Springs and the Kern Valley bank, Bakersfield, own the Two Brothers, which has tunnel in 50 feet, a 2-foot ledge of pay ore, average assay $61, and twenty tons of partly free milling ore on the dump. Forty tons of ore has already been milled.” –L. A. Herald

November 19, 1905: “Molly Shannon, whose name is yet cursed by every Mason, fell from a shot fired by her lover. A huge stone on which is the simple epitaph “Molly Shannon” marks the spot. For the benefit of those who are not MASONS a little of Molly Shannon’s history is here detailed. She was a female Jekyll and Hyde. She was a wealthy woman and a leader of society in New York, and when a desire for the wild
life which she loved would come on her she would tell her friends that she was going to her ranch In the west, and then go to Red Rock canyon and vicinity, where she would don male attire and hold up stage coaches.

Her venturesome spirit led her to don male, attire and attempt to join the Masonic fraternity, but she was discovered before she had gone very far, and she again fled to the Vastness’s of Red Rock canyon. A detail of Masons was sent after her to avenge the betrayal, but before they found her she had again tried to rob a stage coach and was shot by her lover, who was a passenger in the coach.“ –L. A. Herald

February 6, 1912: “PROSPECTORS IN RED ROCK CANYON –Echo Correspondent Writes of Mining For The Precious Gold.—Nugget Gulch Camp, Red Rock Mining District, Cal., Feb. 5—Do you know that there is considerable mining activity in Red Rock Canyon, twenty-one miles north from the town of Mojave and along the southern steps of  the mountains to the old pioneer camp of Garlock are quite a number of prospectors at Red Rock dry washing all, calling upon mother earth to give up her rich course nuggets as well as fine gold, and meeting with the success due as honest and diligent prospector and miner.

We also have an Oakland Company of capitalist headed by W. Mott, which  I believe was  in the legislature one term; out district attorney now Rowen Irwin filed the important _____.

They are working a crew of men under the able management of Phil de Fontville, and old home prospector and thorough miner.

The Oakland company has a derrick and is sinking to bed rock with 10 inch casing thoroughly testing the gravel.  Many of the holes will be made across and down the Canyon for  a distance of some two miles.  From the expressions of all I would say they are meeting with success, should the gravel and bedrock pan out as they expect.  It will mean dredge at the mouth of Red Rock Canyon at an outlay of $200,000 or more, and give employment to  many people; also a boom to the desert mining camps.  They have plenty of ground to insure this outlay, providing they get the values.  The average per yard need not be one-quarter as much as in Nome, there they have to hole up in the ice with the bears and no work one-half of more in  the year, while here on the desert it means work 365 days in the year providing you do not wish to lay  off  Sunday’s and go the Supervisor Houser’s town, Randsburg, for Sunday services, two churches there I believe. A model town.

This camp has been working a little over one month and has accomplished much by the energetic management of its manager, Phil de Fontville.  Here I must tell you how he clings to the cold northern countrys.  If he wishes to employ another man to all his crew.  Question to the worker.  Where to you come from.  Answer: From the northern part of the state in the mountains. Mr. F.: That suits me you can go to work at once, and said the people of southern California are all right and good people but the climate is warm and it given them a slow up, in the north where its cold and fresh the people walk briskly and feel fresh and good, this is the workman’s place, and dare say every word it true.  No doubt in the past ten or twelve years men that represented plenty of capital and not doubt might have spent thousands in prospecting Red Rock, have been notified by _____ __ __ them that they owned all the ground in Red Rock Canyon, or nearly so.  Capitalists generally are not seeking trouble, so they kept their cash in their pockets and went elsewhere to seek investment, and __ished the desert county as well as Kern County of Millions, if they has struck it good and got the encouragement they deserved.

In the early days of Red  Rock, when Thomas Shaw, Martin Stander and others worked in Bonanza Gulch and James and others in  the  main  Red Rock Canyon is was  a busy, lively camp and thousands and thousands of dollars were taken out mostly course gold and I  believe worth about $18 per ounce.  I cannot get the full amount but if ran way up in the thousands, that was sold to Chas. Koehn at Kane Springs, at Randsburg and Mojave.  Besides large shipments were made by the owners to San Francisco and Los Angeles.  The deserts early pioneers, the men that done much for Randsburg, Red Rock and Goler Canyon is C. A. Koehn of 20 years residence on his ranch at Kane Springs.  He built, in the boom time of the mines, a two story old-fashioned Dutch castle, got the material, stone, from the hills a short distance away, and no doubt plenty of the rock contained in his castle would assay well in the precious yellow metal.  In early days his fare was somewhat up hill and he was content to subsist on the products of the desert.  Jack rabbits, lizards, were a feast in the winter months, or a duck that happened to light in his meadow of pond in quest of food.  Those were stringent times, before the mining boom struck the desert.  Then as now, no man ever called that was hungry and  worn out by tramping the sands of the desert, that did not a share of food and house and bed to sleep in; money of no money.

In all there long years of his stay on the ranch, improving it and making it a welcome stopping place for all, he has looked after and holds much mining property.  Knowing full well that the time would come when it would become valuable.  The time has now come I believe.

One of his great discoveries was and is the Gypsum deposit on the edge of the lake.  This he sold a year of more ago, the company he sold to are mostly S. P. R. R. boys who created a mill I believe of a 50 ton capacity, at a cost of $75,000.  The mill is on the line of the Nevada and California Railroad from Mojave to Inyo County.  Their station is Gypsite, they are now making shipments of the plaster, as well as shipping large quantities of the raw material as a land fertilizer, mostly going to Los Angeles and surrounding country.

Koehn in early days was dubbed the Flying Dutchman, the Dutch Prince, even the Mayor of Kane Springs.  Recently General Koehn of Rolling Fortress Fame.  He has one building on placer ground in Last Chance Gulch, that he has bonded to D. W. Ball, a California mining man and his associates.  They will soon put on a force of men, as soon as the necessary machinery is installed.  Like Red Rock thousands of thousands of dollars have been taken from this gulch and really has only been partially prospected.  General Koehn also has the winner (Winnie) mine of Randsburg, a valuable property with salt claims on the dry lake.

The richest and most pleasant strike the general ever made was about two years ago when he when he asked will you share my home, my joys, and troubles, the answer must have been in the affirmative as he came home after visiting the clerk’s office and seeing the minister, with not only a wife, but a true companion, a grand Christian woman, that shares his destinies on the desert, all that can be said is that both done well.  Considerable activity is being __beth around the Garlock and Goler camps.  Chicago capitalists has installed a steam dry washer, a large one, and expect soon to reap a good reward for their outlay, lots of virgin ground in this camp, and it has yielded  its many thousands like former camps.

George E. Johnson, with his ever willing helpmate, Mrs. Johnson is now tunneling into a large dyke which runs well, and they soon expect to have the world at their feet.  Johnson’s judgment in mining matters is good and we need not fear for their fortune, these sturdy old pioneers are bound to win in the long race of life.  Seeking a just reward for their hard (work).

Mrs. C. A. Koehn, Mrs. W. Munsey and others have some two hundred acres of Gypsum joining onto the deposits that Mr. Koehn sold to the railroad men.  No doubt some one will soon be looking for a gypsum investment and they may get it.  All of the gypsum of these deposits run from 75 to 90 per cent.  A thin layer of sand and soil is on top, this is scraped off, then the material from 2 to 17 feet deep is loaded on traction engine and taken to the mill for treatment.

ANOTHER OLD CATTLE PIONEER—William Munsey, who lives three miles southwest from Koehn Springs is doing well in the stock business with his two industrious and hardworking sons.  Like the others he also has a enterprising head  he can be proud of.  John Cassou who lives some three miles south of Mr. Munsey has also a fine herd, all are good people and doing well, quite a number of ranches are improving their holdings about desert wells.  Sinking wells and getting plenty of water. W. R. Johnson” –Bakersfield Morning Echo

September 30, 1919: “MOJAVE DESERT GIVES UP TYPES OF EARLY DAY HORSES AND WOLVES –Tertiary Mammalian Fauna Discovered by Dr. Merrian of State University.—The Mojave desert in Southeastern California furnished the laboratory of research in geology for evidence  of  the Tertiary mammalian faunas, according to the latest University of California publication in the geology series written by Dr. John Campbell  Meriam, professor of paleontology and historical geology in the State University, president of  the Pacific Division of the American Association  for the Advancement of Science and  president of  the Geological Society of America.  At a number of localities in the Mojave desert there are large exposures of bedded or stratified tock composed of gravel, sand, clay with much volcanic material showing a total thickness of at least 2,000 to 3,000 feet.

Two of  the largest areas are those known as the Barstow formation in  the hills north of  Barstow and the Ricardo formation in the region of Red Rock Canyon or Ricardo, about twenty-five miles  north of the town of Mojave.  Especially in the Red Rock Canyon region the picturesque sculptured and brilliantly colored cliffs of the formation are said to be worthy to be ranked among the most extraordinary natural features of California.

SOUGHT BY PROSPECTORS –On account of their superficial resemblance to formations in the oil regions of California the rocks of the Mojave Desert have attracted attention of many prospectors.  About twenty-five years ago a geologist working on the Mojave Desert found fossil bone in one of the sandy formations and he judged by the form that they represented a fossil kangaroo.  In recent years many similar specimens have been obtained by the University of California expeditions, and they are now known to belong to the delicately formed feet of diminutive horses of the three-toed type known as the Tertiary.

Many types of these horses have been found.  Those obtained in the formation near Barstow are known elsewhere only from the Miocene period near the middle of the Tertiary, and probable removed by two or three million years from the present.  The fossil remains of horses from Ricardo are all of a larger type than those of Barstow, and though of the three-toed type they show closer resemblance to the modern horse and correspond to groups known elsewhere in rocks of the Pliocene, the last period of the Tertiary.

BIG WOLVES—Remains of many other kinds of animals, including camels, pigs, mastodon and antelope-like animals, a considerable variety of heavy-jawed wolves, and cats of the sabretooth type, found with the fossil horses show a difference between the species or kinds known at Barstow and Ricardo.  In practically every case in which similar groups of animals are seen at both localities, as in the case of the horses, the Ricardo specimens came nearer to the type of life existing today.  This complete difference in the kind of animals of the two great formations only a few miles apart shows that they could not have been living at the same time.  The more advanced stage of evolution and closer resemblance of the Ricardo animals to those of the present day means that they are the younger group of them, according to Dr. Merriam.

LAND ANIMALS—In both the Ricardo and Barstow formations the fossil shells found in the rocks are like shells now inhabiting fresh water, and the bones represent only land animals.  The strata in which the bones and shells are discovered are like those forming in desert regions today and differ widely from deposits found in the seas such as those of the California Coast Range oil fields.  The kinds of land animals represented could not have flourished in a country as arid as the existing Mojave Desert, but might have lived under semi-arid conditions.” –Bakersfield Morning Echo

March 30, 1935:  “FEMININE MINE OWNER FINDS BURIAL GROUNDS NEAR RED ROCK CANYON  –Mrs. Josie S. Bishop,  large claim owner and prospector at Red Rock Canyon and vicinity, has won many secrets from the Mojave region, not the least picturesque of which was the discovery a few days ago of what is believed to be an Indian burial grounds.  Round andesite rocks, heaped in  mounds and arrow heads of obsidian, hint that here centuries ago, red men embarked for the happy hunting grounds.  The mounds are near Red  Rock Canyon.

Recently  the enigmatic desert rewarded Mrs.  Bishop’s  28 years devotion by exposing petrified bones of prehistoric water animals, in a  lime carbonate deposit near Ricardo and Dove Springs.  These were sent to the  Los Angeles museum for identification.  The lake bed in which they were located is on her property.

FINDS POTASH—Mrs. Bishop also discovered 24 per cent potash in her placer claim at Red Rock, and once found tin 19 miles north of Mojave and roasted out a good-sized button of it, in a  hot  fire.

She loves the desert “where the west is still wild” and has been intrepid in  conquering it.  She is not afraid to protect her property from claim jumpers with 30-30, which she learned to use in childhood at Silver City, when her father was sheriff, and she was undaunted to her home, located between Red Rock and Jawbone, and found that it had burned to the ground, and all that had been saved was a shoe.  She has tusaled with many side-winders which she considers far more menacing than  rattlers, and she loves to tromp the desert in heavy boots, prospecting, exploring, painting, of just hiking.  She is  the mother of seven children.

It was  Mrs. Bishop upon whom fell the honor of arranging an exhibit of California clays and minerals at the Harbor Industrial Exhibition in Long Beach in 1925, a display which won a blue ribbon and much favorable comment.  At a mineral and oils banquet she won recognition as “The only woman belonging to the fraternal order of desert rats.”  Incidentally she is a member of the Episcopal Church and Order of Eastern Star.

She found relish in mining early in life in Silver City.  Where most little girls were playing with dolls, her lap was  full of rocks.

INTERESTED IN ROAD—Mrs. Bishop is interested in having the county reclaim the old historic road from San Bernardino to Sacramento, used in ’49.  She believes that it would be a convenience to the prospectors and would be interesting historically.  The strip to which she refers begins at Cantil and extends” —————————————————————————————————————————————————-

RICARDO / RUDOLPH HAGEN

July 9, 1895: “GO TO THE NEW LOUVRE” 8 TO 14 O’ FARRELL ST. –We have removed the “Louvre” from the old basement under the Phelan building and now occupy the finest quarters above ground in the city.  Rudolph Hagen and Felix Eisele, Prop’s.”—San Francisco Call

January 24, 1896: “Rudolph Hagen who kept a saloon in this city has failed for $11,500.” –San Francisco Call

February 3, 1898:  “A POST OFFICE WAS ESTALISHED today at Ricardo, Red Rock Canyon, Cal., and Rudolph Hagen appointed Postmaster.” –San Francisco Call

September 19, 1899—AT THE ARLINGTON –Rudolph Hagen, Riicardo.” –Bakersfield Daily Californian

September 27, 1899: “MISS AUGUSTA HAGEN arrived on last night’s Owl from San Francisco where she has spent the summer.  She will remain here a few days with her father R.  Hagen, the Ricardo merchant who is not visiting this city.” –Bakersfield Daily Californian

October 6, 1899:  “R. HAGEN has returned from San Francisco. He leaves for Ricardo tonight.” – Bakersfield Daily Californian

December 16, 1899:  “RUDOLPH HAGEN, merchant of Ricardo is here on business.” – Bakersfield Daily Californian

October 14, 1902” THE APPLICATION OF RUDOLPH HAGEN for a license for a saloon at the northwest corner of Twentieth and K streets was ordered to take the usual course.” –Bakersfield Daily Californian

September 30, 1903:  “SUIT TO RECOVER HOTEL PROPERTY – Thomas Means Wants to Oust Rudolph Hagen –Other Court Proceedings—Through his attorney, Charles N.  Sears, Thomas A. Means filed suit today against Rudolph Hagen to recover possession of the premises known as the Old German Hotel at Twentieth and K streets, and to recover the sum of $250 and costs of suits.  The petition alleges that the defendant took possession of the premises under a three years lease last march, but has failed to pay the monthly rent of $35 since last June.” –Bakersfield Daily Californian

August 24, 1904:  “BELL  CHARGED WITH ASSAULT –Rudolph Hagen Claims to Have Been Beaten by the Officer—The Whole Trouble Was Caused by one Leaving a Team Tied on the Street.—A warrant was issued this afternoon for the arrest of Mort Bell for assault with a deadly weapon.  The complaint was sworn to by Rudolph Hagen.

Mr. Hagen’s version of the story is that early yesterday afternoon some one left a team of mules tied to the hitching rack opposite the German Hotel and that they were left standing there up to a late hour last night.  The mules became very restless at different times and Mr. Hagen had to go near and quiet them. Along about midnight he thought it would  be no more than right from a humane stand point to put the team  in a stable and commenced to look  for an officer to do it.   He claims to have spoken to several parties  and told them to send an officer around.

About 1:30 Mort Bell answered the call and when he went up to the team, Mr. Hagen states the he went over from the  hotel, where he was sitting on the porch, and asked Bell if  the mules belonged to him and that when he did so the officer struck on the head.  Just about this time a young man named Kelly came along and said that he was an officer and placed Hagen under arrest.  The three then  started to jail but on the way up Hagen succeeded in convincing Bell that he was wrong and the latter wanted to drop it there but Hagen said no and made both Kelly and Bell go to  the jail.  No charge was made against Hagen and he was detained but a few minutes.

Mr. Bell when seen about the matter said there was nothing to it and that Hagen was either drunk or crazy.   Further than that he had nothing to say.” –Bakersfield Daily Californian

May 10, 1904:  “THE SUIT OF RUDOLPH HAGEN versus Red Rock Gravel Mining Company has been continued on a month for hearing.” –Bakersfield Morning Echo

September 13, 1904:  “THE OFFICER IS CHARGED WITH  ASSAULT AND BATTERY BY RUDOLPH HAGEN – The case of the people versus Mort Bell, charged with assault and battery by Rudolph Hagen is on trial today is Judge Willard’s court and is attracting considerable attention.

The trouble between the ———–some time ago, over a team of mules which had been left standing at a rack opposite the German hotel for about twelve hours.   Hagen clams that he had tried for some time to get an officer to come and take charge of the team and that when Bell arrived on the scene he went over to ask him if was the owner of the mules, that when he did so he was told that it was none of his business and the without provocation the officer struck him on the head with his pistol, inflicting a serious wound.” –Bakersfield Daily Californian

October 15, 1904:  “THE CASE OF THE PEOPLE VERSUS KELLY is set for hearing on the charge of assault with a deadly weapon.  This is the case in which Rudolph Hagen appears as complaining witnesses charging the defendant and Officer Mort Bell with assaulting hm.  Bell was discharged by Justice Millard some time ago.  The case against Kelly has however never been dismissed.” –Bakersfield Morning Echo

October 25, 1904:  “THE CHARGE OF ASSAULT Kelly preferred by Rudolph Hagen, pending in Justice Millard’s court was today continued until November 5.” –Bakersfield Daily Californian

February 18, 1909: “WANTED –CLERK TO ATTEND my store and post office at Ricardo, Red Rock Canyon, Kern County, Cal.  Address Rudolph Hagen, box 514, Bakersfield, Cal.” –Bakersfield Morning Echo

October 8, 1909: “SUPERVISORS GRANT LIQUOR LICENSES TODAY –A retail liquor license to conduct a saloon at Ricardo was granted this morning by the county supervisors to Rudolph Hagen.” –Bakersfield Californian

December 10, 1909: “PROMISES BROKEN BY AQUEDUCT CO. –Rudolph Hagen Tells Supervisors Company is Not Fulfilling Promises—A communication was received by the Board of Supervisors this morning from Rudolph Hagen, complaining that the Los Angeles aqueduct company were not fulfilling their promises, that their culverts were n such a state that they endangered and the public highways and his property, and that the public crossing that the aqueduct people had put in at Rocky Point in the Canyon ran through the place where Hagen’s ditch survey rand and was an usurpation or his rights.

The board referred the complaint to Supervisor Houser, who is familiar with the situation there.” –Bakersfield Californian

February 12, 1910: “RUDOLPH HAGEN OF RICARDO was a visitor in this city last night.” –Bakersfield Californian

April 1, 1910:  “JUDGEMENT ASSIGNED –The judgment of $350 for Ernest Etter against Rudolph Hagen has been assigned to Thos. Scott.’ –Bakersfield Morning Echo

August 18, 1910:  “RUDOLPH HAGEN HAS ACCIDENT –In Severe Runaway in the Mountains and Could Not Cast His Vote—Rudolph Hagen of Ricardo is bemoaning the fact that there is no such thing as voting in proxy or on pairing off, as they do in congress, for on account of an accident he was kept from the polls on primary day.

Ever since one day last week when he was driving downs the canyon he has been unable to leave his house.  He now is on the road to Wellville and has reason to congratulate himself that the accident was no worse, for his escape from total injury was narrow.

The pose of his buggy broke and the alarmed horses started full tile over rocks and chuckholes.  The jarring broke the kingpin and the “fifth wheel.”  Mr. Hagen would not let go the lines and he was dragged a considerable distance over the rough ground before the horses were stopped.  An awful shaking up and many bruises had by this time occurred.  Mr. Hagel is still confined to his house, but hopes to be out and about soon.” –Bakersfield Californian

November 11, 1910: “ ALL LAND ABOUT RED ROCK CANYON STAKED—Bakersfield, Nov. 10.—Rudolph Hagen of Ricardo, Red Rock Canyon, says the country all around the canyon has  been located for oil, and three or four rigs are drilling about eight miles south of Ricardo.  This would be some 17 miles north of Indian Wells, and extends the oil exploration that much farther.

Mr. Hagen did not know the names of the companies operating.  It is reported that the Southern Pacific, a Selma Bank, and a Pasadena Bank are in charge of the work.  The drills have dropping for nearly a month.

The men who have land located around Red Rock Canyon have guards stationed to hold possession.” –Los Angeles Herald

December 12, 1910:  “Rudolph Hagen was granted a liquor license for Ricardo.” –Bakersfield Californian

September 5, 1911:  “RUDOLPH HAGEN, WHO IS EXTENSIVELY interested in mining at Ricardo in the Mojave Desert, accompanied by his wife, arrived in the city last evening.  They are registered at the Southern Hotel.” –Bakersfield Morning Echo

November 7, 1911:  “DESTRUCTION OF LUMBER DENIED –Rudolph Hagen Says Aqueduct Destroys Only the Worthless Lumber—Rudolph Hagen of Red Rock which is on the line of the Los Angeles aqueduct says that the report of the burning of camp buildings by the aqueduct people is greatly exaggerated.  Mr. Hagen says that some lumber is burned, but only such as the aqueduct people do not consider worth saving.  He said that he had hauled a large amount of lumber from the abandoned camps, but while it suited his purposes very well for the building of sheds, he did not think it would be worthwhile for the aqueduct authorities to try to use it in the building of new camps.  Hagen says the building are torn down and only the broken or damaged boards are burned. The same policy, Hagen says, is followed in the case of water pipes that are laid underground about the camps.  The pipes that are buried deep and have been in use for a considerable time are abandoned as not worth the expense of digging up.  The settlers, however, uncover then and use them about their ranches.

J. M. Holdway, whose home  and much of whose financial interests are in Los Angeles, telephoned to a  friend in  that city  asking him to investigate the report and he says he received five messages in answer denying that  the aqueduct buildings are burned.  Holloway says he believes the report has been concocted for the purpose of influencing the coming election in Los Angeles.” –Bakersfield Morning Echo

December 17, 1911:  “RUDOLPH HAGEN OF RICARDO out on the Mojave Desert, raises tomatoes successfully all the year round at his Red Rock Canyon (home).  Mr. Hagen, who was in town a few days ago, says that roses are in bloom now.”  –Bakersfield Morning Echo

November 20, 1919:  “ENDS LIFE IN LONELY SPOT—Finding of a headless skeleton in Red Rock canyon on the Mojave Desert yesterday gave rise to a rumor that a murder had been committed.  Shortly afterward word came that the skull had been uncovered some distance away from the trunk.  A knife also was found and a half dozen revolver shells, but no revolver.

Basing his belief on meagre details received from desert residents, Coroner A. H. Dixon said that he thought it was a case of suicide.

The investigation is being made by Special Officer A. E. Cook of the district attorney’s office who was accompanied to the desert yesterday by Deputy Sheriff J. H. Dupes.  Coroner Dixon said that he did not believe it was necessary for him to go, that the deputies would bring in the remains and collect all the essential evidence.

District Attorney Jesse H. Dorsey planned to make a personal investigation of the tragic discovery.

Apparently the person, believed to be a man, had been dead for some time.   It may have been six months (said) Dixon.  There was very little flesh clinging to the bones, and it was his belief that rodents, ants, and rabbits had probably eaten away the flesh from the skeleton.  No coyote would touch a dead human body, stated Mr. Dixon.

The high and dry climate of the desert would keep a body fairly intact for a long time.

Dixon thought if probable that the knife had been used to suicide, that a stroke across the throat would cause the head shortly to be severed from the torso through disintegration.

A cheap black shirt was found near the skeleton, also other clothing worn by men.  There was a newspaper also.

Neither the skull nor the bones showed evidence of having been crushed or broken.  The most palatable theory in the light of the evidence at hand was suicide with a knife, the coroner thought.

The body was found in the canyon some distance from the ranch of Rudolph Hagen of Ricardo, the Red Rock Canyon country post office.  The head was found by a man named Odolph of Los Angeles.” –Bakersfield Moring Echo

November 22, 1919:  “RED ROCK SKELETON MYSTERY DEEPENS –Murder or Suicide, Officers in Doubt –Find Revolver and Ford Top at Scene.—Whether the Red Rock Canyon tragedy, where the skeleton of a man was found was a blood red criminal vendetta or a plain suicide is still puzzling the local authorities and a searching and minute investigation is now being conducted and will continue until all the resources of the law are exhausted.

The finding of a Ford automobile top near the scene of the tragedy strengthens the authorities in their theory that the skeleton found was that of a man who was the victim of a criminal vendetta, the sequel of which was written with bullets, blood, and the man’s life in a lonely, barren and forsaken spot near the Red Rock Canyon.

Parts of the Skeleton were found dispersed over a large section of the lonely spot.  The head was picked up by a Polytechnic professor who carried it off to Los Angeles.  An Inquest will be held again next week by Coroner Dixon at which time it is expected to have the skull at the inquest.

FIND MAN’S CLOTHING—A. E. Cook, detective in the District Attorney’s office, and J. H. Dupes, who have been conducting the investigation found a hat, which they believe was the property of the dead man,  and in this hat there’s a hole, which it is believed was cause by a bullet.  Working on this theory the District Attorney wants the skull returned for an inquest to see if there is any indication of a bullet wound in the skull.

One of the puzzling features of the mystery is the bullet hole through the coat, vest, and shirt found by Cook, who also found an old Colt army revolver near the shirt.  Cook made careful measurements of the hole in the coat, vest  and shirt and he declares that it could not have been made by a bullet  from the revolver he found, which is a 45 caliber,  while the hole  in the garments indicate that they were made  by  a  revolver of not larger than 32 caliber.

Cook found several 45 caliber bullets in the clothing and they fitted perfectly the revolver but when he tried to insert them in the holes in the garment they could not fit, as they were considerably to large.

The district attorney’s office clings to the theory that the skeleton found was that of a man who escaped from jail here some time ago and who had incurred the enmity of a band of desperadoes by aiding the district attorney’s office.

That this man, after breaking jail was picked up by a former confederate, who, under the guise of friendship, spirited him away, assuring him that he would get out of the state, and then for revenge murdered him in the lonely spot near Red Rock Canyon is a theory to which the authorities cling with considerable tenacity.

Detective Cook says that there is a small hole in the top of the automobile cover found, indicating that a bullet ploughed its way through it.

CLING TO MURDER THEORY—working on that theory, the authorities believe that if the man was actually murdered that he did not die without a struggle.  The revolver found near the spot of the tragedy has two chambers empty.  It is the theory of the authorities that the dead man, in self-defense, made a fight for his life, but that he lost in the last great struggle.

Near the scene of the mysterious tragedy, a gasoline measuring rule bearing the name of the Haberfelde garage was found.  A woman’s hand bag containing some small personal articles was also found near the scene of the tragedy.

On the man’s clothing found by Detective Cook he discovered in the pockets two closed pocket knives, blood stained, a razor having marks of blood on it, a  paring  knife and a shaving brush.  The razor bore the initials “J. J.” and was wrapped in a piece of paper from some store in Arizona.  The name of the city was cut off the wrapping paper, with the exception of a “T.”   The authorities believe that the place was Prescott.

A POSSIBLE CLUE—On the wrapping paper the word “Lock” was discernable.  The authorities think that this is the ending of a man’s name who conducted a store and employment bureau in Prescott, Arizona.

No letters were found in the clothing and no marks, such as are usually found on clothing were discovered.  The authorities look upon this as a strange omen, as most men carry some card, letter memorandum, books or some  other means of identification.

The revolver found near the scene of the mysterious tragedy is causing the authorities considerable speculation.  There are some carved initials on the wooden handle of it, but they are blurred and hard to decipher.  Whether the initials on the revolver handle are “J. E. R.,” or “J. E. F.” are puzzling the authorities.  A strong magnifying glass will be procured for use on the initials to see if the exact letters cannot be deciphered.

Every effort is being made to clear up the mystery and if the skull shows any mark of a bullet hole when it is returned for the inquest it will strengthen the authorities in their theory that a murder was committed on the desert.

SKELETON’S DISCOVERY—That the skeleton may be the remains of J. E. Furlong, who broke jail here some time ago, is a theory that the authorities still cling to.  The local authorities are still conducting an investigation hoping to be able to establish the identity of the dead man.

Rudolph Hagen who reported the finding of the remains of the skeleton to the coroner’s office, sent a letter Coroner Flickinger in which he stated among other things;

“On Saturday afternoon, November 15, a party of about 18 young college students, chaperoned by a Mr. Waldorf, coming down from the summit through the Red Rock Canyon had in their possession a male human skull which they found about four mile north from here, (Ricardo) under the sagebrush.  The skull evidently was not lying long where it was found as part of the skin and brown hair was on it yet, also some flesh in the eye-sockets.

“One of the remarkable features of the skull was the fact that there were a full set of teeth, very white and none missing.

“I cannot give you Mr. Waldorf’s address.  All I know is that the party hailed from Los Angeles.”

The local authorities are going to get in touch with Los Angeles authorities for the recovery of the skull as they desire to have an inquest held on it to see if they can develop any new clues in the mystery.

Chief of Police Stone stated last night that he secured  the number marks on the revolver found near the scene of  the Red Rock Canyon tragedy, and that he had forwarded  them to the state bureau of identification and investigation to see if former ownership of the revolver from the state bureau at Sacramento.” –Bakersfield Morning Echo

March 27, 1926:  “RUDOLPH HAGEN GETS CLEAR TITLE TO LAND –Rudolph Hagen of Red rock has received notice from the Interior Department confirming his rights to some 800 acres of mineral ground in and about the Red Rock Canyon, which had been contested by homesteaders.

Mr. Hagen located this land in the pioneer days when there was a big mining excitement in the Red Rock region and the matter has been in controversy ever since.  The claims include a large mineralized area and it Mr. Hagen’s hope to develop a part of his holdings now that the matter of title is cleared up.” –Bakersfield Californian

March 29, 1926:  “Rudolph Hagen of Red Rock Canyon, paying an informal visit to the Board of Supervisors, was congratulated by Chairman James I. Wagy on winning a nine-year fight over his mining claims in the canyon.” –Bakersfield Californian

May  8, 1926:  “PLACERS RED ROCK CANYON FOR BIG MINE PROJECT—Rudolph Hagen Has Leased Three Ricardo Claims For Development—————————————————————————————————————————————

May4, 1928: RED ROCK MINE SUIT FOR HAGEN—Title to Three Rich Claims Quieted by Court Order Settling Contest.—Judge R. B. Lambert today quieted title to three rich Red Rock Canyon in favor of Rudolph Hagen, pioneer of the district, and agreed to the dismissal of a counter claim and cross-complaint for $100,000.  The law firm of Osborn & Burum of this city represented Mr. Hagen in his initial action to quiet title to his claims which  were described as Ricardo Deep Channel, Numbers 1, 2, and 3.

In his order, Judge Lambert decreed that the title of the plaintiffs be and the “same is quieted to all of the property in accord with the complaint as amended and to all the personal property described.”  The defendant in the action was John Eyermanl.

The three claims under litigation are in the heart of the Red Rock Canyon area, one of the most picturesque spots in the county which is now under consideration by the Board of Supervisors as a permanent park site, it has been the scene of many motion pictures and is well known throughout the west.” –Bakersfield Californian

May 21, 1929: “FAMED PIONEER MINING MAN OF RED ROCK AREA SUED FOR LIBEL—Woman Demands $100,000 as Damages for Alleged Injury Due to Notice.—DEFENDANT GUARDIAN OF FAMOUS DISTRICT—Published Warning Against “Claim Jumpers and Other Pests” Basis for Suit.—Rudolph Hagen, famous pioneer of the Red Rock Canyon area, and mining man is named as the defendant in a $100,000 suit filed here in the Superior Court by Josie Bishop

The plaintiff alleges that Mr. Hagen published in a newspaper known as the Mojave Record and the Randsburg Times, a notice which opens with these words:  “Claim jumpers and other pests—“the notice proceeds to warn the claim jumpers and other pests as well as the general public against claim jumping proclivities and the business of juggling boundary lines on existing claims or the practice of extracting public money from worthless claims.

NAMES MENTIONED—Because the name of Josie Bishop and H. G. Bishop are mentioned in the newspaper notice, according to the allegations of the complaint, Josie Bishop has suffered damages.  It is asserted, to the extent of $50,000 for actual injury and another $50,000 for exemplary damages.

The plaintiff alleges further that the publication of this notice is false and defamatory.

The Red Rock Canyon area is becoming more famous every year for its weird scenic beauties, and is attracting large numbers of week-end tourists.  For many years Mr. Hagen has been the custodian of the canyon through his pioneer through his pioneer rights as a miner in the district and through his love of the place which he has made his home.

He has guarded the wind and rain carved battlements of the canyon from the vandalism of boys and thoughtless visitors, for the benefit of the general public, and through his long residence in the canyon area has come to be associated with its name.

The state parks board has recently recommended that the Red Rock Canyon area be made a state park under the bond issue voted at the last general election.” –Bakersfield Californian

February 15, 1930:  “PLAN EASTER SERVICES – Randsburg, Feb. 15. – A sunrise Easter service will be held in Red Rock Canyon, one of America’s best known romantic places.  Committees were elected, Rev. John Ovall being chairman.  Cantil and other towns in the Mojave Desert will c0-operate with this central committee, and people from many cities and communities are expected to take part in this service.” ” –Bakersfield Californian

February 20, 1930:  “JUDGE RETURNS FROM INSPECTION OF ROAD –Judge R. B. Lambert returned to his department of the Superior Court after having made a trip through the Red Rock Canyon area in connection with the suit of Samuel Scott and Dr. Mary Billett against Rudolph Hagen and others for opening of a road which Mr. Hagen closed through private property.

Judge Lambert, accompanied by attorneys and litigants in the action, went over the road involved in the suit—the road to Iron Canyon, and examined a witness on the desert.

The Judge said today that the hearing will be continued tomorrow afternoon in his department of the superior court.

The plaintiffs in the action ask for and order opening the road and for $5000 damages.

Mr. Hagen has offered the plaintiffs ________________________________they may have access to their property up Iron Canyon.” –Bakersfield Californian

April 21, 1930:  “FAITHFUL GATHER IN FAMOUS SPOT—Sunrise Service Conducted Easter in  Red Rock Canyon by Churches –One of the most impressive Easter sunrise services took place Easter Sunday morning in one of the most exquisite settings nature has provided in Kern County—Red Rock Canyon.  More than 200 of the faithful gathered in the canyon just as the sun-beams crept over the edge of the canyon changing the purple shadows into golden radiance of early morning.  The services were arranged under the auspices of the Cantil and Randsburg churches and some of the worshipers were in attendance from Bakersfield, according to Charles Shomate who reported the services today.

The faithful were called to worship by the sound of the bugle, the call being issued by George Arnett.  The services were conducted from the top of the famous palisades from which point the organ music and voices of the choir rolled forth with singular impressiveness.

The opening anthem was “All Hail the Power of Jesus’ Name,” sung by the audience, followed by a Scripture reading telling the story of Easter by Mrs. H. M. Ling, after which prayer was conducted by Mrs. John Ovall.  The anthem “Christ Arose,” was then sung by the crowd of worshippers and Mrs. Earl Brown read, “God of the Open Air.

An impressive part of the services was the tableau of “The Rock Of Ages,” Miss Mildred Ling dramatizing the episode, a symbolic cross being erected at the highest point of the palisades.  A short Bible talk was given by the Rev. John Ovall on the significance of Easter, who also conducted the prayer.

The service was the first ever conducted in the Red Rock Canyon, and so impressive was the setting and ceremony that it will in all probability become an annual event.” –Bakersfield Californian

March 28, 1931:  “RED ROCK CANYON SERVICE IS PLANNED –Randsburg, March 28.—The Easter sunrise service at Red Rock Canyon promises to be one of the greatest events of its kind in southern California.  The program will be in charge of the Rev. John Ovall and the Rev. Leonard Oechali will be one of the speakers.  Special songs and music will be provided by the Randsburg, Inyokern and Cantil choirs.  The public is cordially invited to take part in the service. ” –Bakersfield Californian

July 6, 1937:  “CANTIL CLUB HAS MEET AT SPRINGS—Mrs. V. L. Hayes (Haynes) Presides at Meeting of Ladies at McIver Residence.—Mojave, July 6—Monthly meeting of Cantil Ladies’ Club was held at the  Dove Springs home of Mrs. Murdo McIver with the president, Mrs. V. L. Haynes presiding.  Preceding the business meeting at 2 o’clock, a potluck luncheon was served.  Mrs. Roy E. Root was elected as publicity chairman succeeding Mrs.  George Donley.  Appointed on the entertainment committee for the summer session were Mesdames Ross Rogers, David Yarbrough and L. Holderness, Sr.

Wood carving was studied followed by two recitations, “Lachery Sets a Hen,” and “The New Baby,” by Mrs. James Robinson and Mrs. David Yarbrough.  The next regular meeting will be held August 5 at the Rancho Rico home of Mrs. Ross Rogers and Mrs. Roy E Root.

Club members enjoying Mrs. McIvers hospitality were: Mesdammes John Ovall and James Robinson of Randsburg; Frank Wells of Johannesburg; Earl Thomas of Atolia; V. L.  Haynes, Roy E. Root, Ross Rogers, William Holderness, Leona Holderness, Arnold Tisch, Joslo Bishop, David Yarbrough and Dr. M. Rhinehardt, all of Cantil. Guests were; Phyllis Holderness of Cantil and Miss Mary Jane Melver of Dove Springs. ” –Bakersfield Californian

May 17, 1939: “CANTIL LADIES CLUB –Cantil, May 17.—The annual dinner sponsored at Dove Springs near here will be held on Sunday, May 21, under the auspices of the Cantil Ladies’ Club.  Proceeds will be applied to a benefit fund of the Randsburg Community Methodist Church. ” –Bakersfield Californian

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